Orthodontics 14 (2013), No. 1 15. June 2013
Orthodontics 14 (2013), No. 1 (15.06.2013)
Online Article, Page 10-21
Online Article: Miniscrew design and bone response: Defining a correlation
Bhalla, Karan / Kalha, Anmol S.
Aim: This prospective clinical trial aims at correlating miniscrew implant (MSI) micro/macro architecture, the method of placement, and biologic markers in peri-MSI crevicular fluid (PMICF) as indicators of bone response. A comparative evaluation of surface morphology of the MSIs before placement and after retrieval defines a correlation between the architecture of the MSIs and the bone- implant contact ratio.
Methods: Two types of MSIs (hybrid and cylindric) were placed in ten patients using a split-mouth technique with the aid of a restricted random number table. Each of the MSIs was placed in the intraradicular area between the second premolar and first molar in the attached gingiva, 4 mm from the cementoenamel junction. The MSIs were immediately loaded, and PMICF was collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 42 and evaluated using a standard laboratory protocol. Surface morphology before placement and after retrieval of the MSI was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at a magnification of ×11, ×40, and ×1,000.
Results: Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels observed were lower in the hybrid MSI in comparison to the cylindric MSI. For both MSIs, ALP and AST levels showed a trend of significant increase at days 0, 7, and 14 and then a significant decrease on days 21, 28, and 42. Observations from SEM showed an oxide layer over the entire surface of the bone-expanding hybrid MSI; this layer was observed only at the tip of the cylindric MSI.
Conclusions: Levels of both the diagnostic tissue destruction biologic markers ALP and AST are significantly higher in cylindric MSIs compared with hybrid MSIs, indicating a correlation to the type and method of placement of the MSI. The inflammatory markers show a definitive trend, with an elevation until day 14 and a decline after that, indicating an active inflammatory process until day 14 that could be correlated to tissue trauma. Observations from the SEM show a greater oxide layer formation in the hybrid MSI, which could imply a better bone-MSI contact ratio.
Keywords: temporary anchorage devices, bone remodeling, biologic markers, surface morphology and architecture