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Orthodontics 14 (2013), No. 1     15. June 2013
Orthodontics 14 (2013), No. 1  (15.06.2013)

Online Article, Page 2-9


Online Article: Anteroposterior relationship of the maxillary central incisors to the forehead in adult white males
Adams, Maggie / Andrews, Will / Tremont, Timothy / Martin, Chris / Razmus, Thomas / Gunel, Erdogan / Ngan, Peter
Aim: To evaluate and compare the anteroposterior relationship of the maxillary central incisors to the forehead in white male adults with harmonious profiles and white male adult orthodontic patients.
Methods: Photographs of 101
white male adults with good facial harmony (control sample) were compared with photographs of 97 white male adults seeking orthodontic treatment
(study sample). All were profile images with the maxillary central incisors and foreheads in full view. The images were imported into an image editing software program, resized, and rotated to the upright head position. Reference lines were constructed to assess the anteroposterior positions of the maxillary central incisors and forehead inclinations.
Results: In the control sample, the maxillary central incisors were positioned between the forehead facial axis (FFA) point and glabella in 91%, posterior to the FFA point in 8%, and anterior to the glabella in <1%. The position of the maxillary central incisors was moderately correlated with forehead inclination (r2 = 0.37). In the study sample, the maxillary central incisors were positioned between the FFA point and glabella in 34%, posterior to the FFA point in 59%, and anterior to the glabella in 7%. Maxillary central incisor position and forehead inclination were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.53). The anteroposterior maxillary incisor position relative to the forehead between the control and study groups was significantly different (P < .0001). In addition, the forehead inclination between the control and study group was significantly different (P < .05).
Conclusion: The forehead is an important landmark for anteroposterior maxillary incisor positioning for adult white male patients seeking improved facial harmony.

Keywords: anteroposterior jaw position, forehead, landmark, white male
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